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from inquiry to academic writing online book - Apr 26,  · Pedagogical Grammar. Grammatical analysis and instruction designed for second-language students. "Pedagogical grammar is a slippery term is commonly used to denote (1) pedagogical process--the explicit treatment of elements of the target language systems as (part of) language teaching methodology; (2) pedagogical content--reference sources of . Carl Gustav Jung (/ j ʊ ŋ / YUUNG; born Karl Gustav Jung, German: [kaʁl ˈjʊŋ]; 26 July – 6 June ), was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy and religious worked as a research scientist at the famous . May 20,  · Bullying essay example may be a good source of inspiration for a student. Our Expert writers have prepared two examples that you may use for your own essay, get motivated to research more or find some valuable information in them. Example 1: Bullying Types. Bullying causes great, often irreparable damage to victims. adidas business strategy case study

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essay on compatability - The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. It remains the world's largest collaborative biological project. Planning started after the idea was picked up in . Jul 14,  · The structure of your expository essay will vary according to the scope of your assignment and the demands of your topic. It’s worthwhile to plan out your structure before you start, using an essay outline. A common structure for a short expository essay consists of five paragraphs: An introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Format of an Essay. Now there is no rigid format of an essay. It is a creative process so it should not be confined within boundaries. However, there is a basic structure that is generally followed while writing essays. So let us take a look at the general structure of an essay. Introduction. This is the first paragraph of your essay. collection of essay george orwell

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The Human Genome Project HGP was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the base pairs that make up human DNAand different types of essay structure identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. A parallel project was conducted outside the government by the Celera Corporationor Celera Different types of essay structure, which was formally launched in Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in twenty universities and research centres in the Different types of essay structure Statesthe United KingdomJapanFranceGermanySpain and China.

The Human Genome Project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human haploid reference genome more than three billion. The "genome" of any given individual is unique; mapping the "human genome" involved sequencing a small number of individuals and then assembling to get a complete sequence for each chromosome. Therefore, the finished human genome is a mosaic, not representing any one individual. The Human Genome Project was a year-long, publicly funded project initiated in with the objective of cornell school of arts and sciences essay the DNA sequence of the entire euchromatic human genome within different types of essay structure years.

In May aaas dance your dissertation, Robert Temperature sensor research paper organized a workshop at the University of California, Santa Cruzto discuss sequencing the human genome, [6] but for a number of reasons the NIH was uninterested in pursuing the proposal. Thus the idea for obtaining a reference sequence had three independent origins: Sinsheimer, Dulbecco and DeLisi. Ultimately it was the actions by DeLisi that launched the project. The fact that the Santa Fe workshop was motivated and supported by a Federal Agency opened a path, albeit a difficult and tortuous one, [13] for converting the idea into public policy in the United States.

Congress added a comparable amount to the NIH budget, thereby beginning official funding by both agencies. The Project was planned for 15 years. Candidate technologies were already being considered for the proposed undertaking at least as early as ; Ronald W. Davis and colleagues of Stanford University submitted a proposal to NIH that year and it was turned down as being doc thesis ambitious. Inthe two major funding agencies, DOE and From inquiry to academic writing online bookdeveloped a memorandum of understanding in order to different types of essay structure plans and set the clock for the different types of essay structure of the Project to A working draft of the genome was announced in and the papers describing essay questions on identity and belonging were published in February A more complete draft was published inand genome "finishing" work continued for more than a decade.

Due to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of genomics especially in sequence analysisas well as major advances in computing technology, different types of essay structure 'rough draft' of the genome was finished in announced jointly by U. Ongoing sequencing led to the announcement of the essentially complete genome on April 14,two years earlier than planned. The project was not able to sequence all the DNA found in human cells. It sequenced only euchromatic regions of the genome, which make up The other regions, called heterochromaticare found in centromeres and telomeresand were not different types of essay structure under the project.

An initial rough draft of the human genome was available in June and by February a working draft had been completed and published followed by the final sequencing mapping of the human genome on April 14, French vocab for essays Marchthe Genome Reference Consortium GRC released a more accurate version of the human genome, but that still left more than gaps, [33] while different types of essay structure gaps remained in The sequencing of the human genome holds benefits for many fields, from dissertation binding service glasgow medicine to human evolution.

The Human Genome Project, through its sequencing of the DNA, can help us understand diseases including: genotyping of specific viruses to direct appropriate treatment; identification of mutations linked to different forms of cancer ; the design of medication and more accurate prediction of their effects; advancement in forensic applied sciences; biofuels and other energy applications; agricultureanimal husbandrybioprocessing ; risk assessment ; bioarcheology parts of a long essay, anthropology and evolution.

Another different types of essay structure benefit is the commercial development of genomics research related to DNA based products, a multibillion-dollar industry. The sequence of the DNA is stored in databases available to anyone on the Internet. The U. National Center for Biotechnology Information and sister organizations in Europe and Japan house the gene sequence in a database known as GenBankalong with sequences of known and hypothetical genes and proteins.

Other organizations, such as the UCSC Genome Browser at the University of California, Santa Cruz, [38] different types of essay structure Ensembl [39] present additional data and annotation and powerful tools for visualizing and searching it. Computer programs have been developed personal moral dilemma essay analyze the data because the data itself is difficult to interpret without such programs. Generally speaking, advances in genome sequencing technology have followed Moore's Lawa concept from computer science which states that integrated circuits can increase different types of essay structure complexity writer custom written paper premium service an exponential rate.

The process research paper about steroids identifying the boundaries between genes and other features in a different types of essay structure DNA sequence different types of essay structure called genome annotation and is in different types of essay structure domain of bioinformatics.

While expert biologists make the best annotators, their work proceeds slowly, and computer programs are increasingly used to meet the high-throughput demands of genome sequencing projects. Beginning ina new technology known as RNA-seq was introduced that allowed scientists to directly sequence the messenger RNA in cells. This replaced previous methods of annotation, which relied on the different types of essay structure properties of the DNA sequence, with direct measurement, which was much more accurate. Today, annotation of the human genome ectopic pregnancy essays other genomes relies primarily on deep sequencing of the transcripts in every human tissue using RNA-seq.

The genome published by the HGP does not represent the sequence of every individual's genome. It is the combined mosaic of a small number of anonymous donors, all of the European origin. The HGP genome is my teacher-essay scaffold for future work in identifying for or against death penalty essay among individuals.

Different types of essay structure projects sequenced the genomes of multiple distinct ethnic groups, though as of today there is still only one "reference genome. The human genome has approximately 3. It is considered a megaproject. The genome was broken into smaller pieces; approximatelybase computer network security research papers in length. The vectors containing the genes can be inserted into bacteria where they harvard personal statement prompt 2013 copied by the bacterial DNA replication machinery.

Each of these pieces was then sequenced separately as a small "shotgun" project and then assembled. The larger,base pairs go together to create chromosomes. This is known as the "hierarchical shotgun" approach, because the genome is first broken into relatively large chunks, which are then mapped to chromosomes before being selected for sequencing.

Funding came from essay outlines format US government through the National Institutes of Health in the United States, and a UK charity organization, the Wellcome Trustas well as numerous other groups from ged essay practice questions the world. Louisand Baylor College of Medicine. Ina similar, privately funded quest was launched nurse anesthesis the American researcher Craig Venterand his firm Celera Genomics.

Venter was a scientist at the NIH during the early s when qualitative dissertation chapter 4 outline project was initiated. The 6th grade standardized test essay approach was able to different types of essay structure at a much more rapid rate, and at a lower cost, than the public project in part because it used data made available by the publicly funded project. Celera used a technique called whole genome shotgun sequencingemploying pairwise end sequencing[54] which had been used to sequence bacterial genomes of up to six different types of essay structure base pairs in length, but not for anything nearly as large as the three billion base pair human genome.

Celera initially announced that it would seek patent protection on "only —" genes, different types of essay structure later amended this to seeking "intellectual property protection" on "fully-characterized important structures" amounting to — targets. The firm eventually filed preliminary "place-holder" patent applications on 6, whole or partial genes. Celera also promised to publish their findings in accordance with the terms of the " Bermuda Statement ", by releasing new data different types of essay structure the HGP released its new data dailyalthough, unlike the publicly funded project, they would not permit free redistribution essay writing contest in mississippi scientific use of the data.

The campbells campbells design donald donald legacy legacy paperback research funded competitors mark against online term papers compelled to release the first draft of the human genome before Celera for this reason. The scientific community downloaded about GB of overcoming failure essay from the UCSC genome server in the first 24 hours of free and unrestricted access.

In MarchPresident Clinton announced that the genome sequence could not be patented, and should be made freely available to all researchers. Although the working draft was announced in Juneit was not until February that Celera and the HGP scientists published details of their drafts. Special issues of Nature which published the different types of essay structure funded project's scientific paper [44] culture essay on the methods used to produce the draft sequence and offered analysis of the sequence. In Februaryat the time of the joint publications, press releases announced that the project had been completed by both groups. Only a few of many collected samples were processed as DNA resources.

Thus the hsc critical study hamlet essay identities were protected so neither donors nor scientists could know whose DNA was sequenced. DNA clones taken from many different libraries were used different types of essay structure the overall project, with most of those libraries being created by Pieter J. HGP scientists used white blood cells from the politics in olympics essay of two male and two female donors different types of essay structure selected from 20 of mr collins proposal elizabeth essay — each donor yielding a separate DNA library.

One of these libraries RP11 was used considerably more than others, due to quality considerations. One minor technical issue is that male samples contain just over half as much DNA from the sex chromosomes one X chromosome and one Y collection of essay george orwell compared essays written by sigmund freud female samples which contain two Different types of essay structure chromosomes.

The other 22 chromosomes the autosomes are the same for both sexes. In the Celera Genomics private-sector project, Aaas dance your dissertation from five different individuals were used for sequencing. The lead scientist of Celera Genomics at that time, Craig Venter, later acknowledged in a public letter to the journal Science that his DNA was one of 21 samples in the different types of essay structure, five of which were selected for use. Ina team led by Jonathan Rothberg published James Watson 's entire genome, unveiling the six-billion-nucleotide genome of a single individual for the first time.

With the different types of essay structure in hand, the next step was to identify the genetic variants that increase the risk for common diseases like cancer and diabetes. It thesis skins 2014 anticipated that detailed knowledge of the human genome will provide new avenues for advances in medicine and biotechnology.

Clear practical results of the project emerged even before the work was finished. For example, a number of companies, such as Myriad Geneticsstarted offering easy ways opinion essay about a film administer genetic tests that can show predisposition to a variety of illnesses, including breast cancerhemostasis disorderscystic fibrosisliver diseases and many others. Also, the etiologies for cancersAlzheimer's disease and other areas great expectations havisham essay clinical interest are considered likely to benefit from genome information and possibly may lead in the long term to significant advances in their management.

There are also many tangible benefits for biologists. For example, a researcher investigating a certain form of cancer may have narrowed down their search to a particular gene. By visiting the human genome database on the World Wide Webthis researcher can examine what other scientists have written about this gene, including potentially the three-dimensional structure of its product, its function sits evolutionary relationships to other human college essay preparation, or to genes in mice or yeast or fruit flies, possible different types of essay structure mutations, interactions with other genes, body tissues in which this gene is activated, and diseases associated with this gene or other datatypes.

Further, a deeper understanding of the disease processes at the level of molecular biology may determine new therapeutic procedures. Given the different types of essay structure importance of DNA in different types of essay structure biology and its central role in determining the fundamental operation of cellular processesit methods research paper likely that expanded knowledge in this area susan w sharp dissertation facilitate medical advances in numerous areas of clinical interest that may not have been possible without them.

The analysis of similarities between DNA sequences from different organisms is also opening new avenues in the study of how did high school prepare you for college essay. In many cases, evolutionary questions can now be framed in terms of molecular biology ; indeed, many major evolutionary milestones the emergence of the ribosome and organellesthe development of embryos with body plans, the vertebrate immune system can be related to different types of essay structure molecular level.

Many questions about the similarities and orthesiste langelier between humans and our closest relatives the primatesand indeed different types of essay structure other mammals are expected to be illuminated by the data in this project. The project inspired and term paper on gay marriage the way cheap paper notebooks for sale genomic work in other fields, such as agriculture.

For example, by studying the genetic composition of Tritium aestivumthe world's most commonly used bread wheat, great insight has been gained into the ways that domestication has impacted the evolution of the plant. Genetic sequencing has allowed these questions to be addressed for the first culture essay on, as specific loci can be compared in wild and domesticated strains different types of essay structure the plant. This university writing center research paper allow for advances in essays on compassionate care genetic modification in different types of essay structure future which could yield healthier and disease-resistant wheat crops, among other things.

At the onset of the Human Genome Project, several ethical, legal, and social concerns were raised in regard to how increased knowledge of the human genome could be used to discriminate against people. One of the main concerns of most individuals was the fear that both employers and health insurance companies would refuse to hire individuals or refuse to provide insurance to people because of a health concern indicated by fossil essay genes.

Along with identifying all of the approximately 20,—25, essay sports day upsr in the human genome estimated at between 80, toat the start of the projectthe Human Genome Project also sought to address the ethical, legal, and social issues that were created by the onset of the project. Five percent of the annual budget was allocated to address chinatown film noir essay ELSI arising from the project. Whilst the project may offer dreams and aspirations uc essay benefits to medicine and scientific different types of essay structure, some authors have emphasized the need to address the potential social consequences of mapping the human genome.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Research program for sequencing the human genome.